The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs, about 5 inches long and 3 inches wide. They are dark red in color, and located next to the spine in the middle of his back, below the ribs. The right kidney is a little lower than the left kidney. The kidneys with the bladder, two ureters and urethra are the urinary system. Each kidney is covered with a transparent membrane, fibrous, called a renal capsule that protects against infection and trauma. Each kidney contains millions of microscopic structures called nephrons that filter blood and eliminate the waste in the form of urine.

The kidneys do not weigh much – approximately 0.5 percent of their body weight. Too much waste that accumulate in the bloodstream can cause a wide range of kidney disorders. Diabetes and high blood pressure are the leading causes of kidney disease. Managing your blood sugar levels, checking blood pressure regularly, taking regular blood and urine tests to monitor the health and kidney function, help rejecting kidney disease. Also, eat healthy foods, balanced, exercise regularly and stop smoking, are some small changes can make a huge difference to kidney function. Function of the kidneys The kidneys have several important functions include: * Separate urea, mineral salts, toxins and other waste from the blood * Conserves water, salts and electrolytes * Narrow metabolic wastes from the blood plasma and excreted from the body * Remove and break down toxins in the body by getting rid of it in the urine * Balances body fluid volume and mineral content * Responsible for ensuring that blood pressure remains constant over the long term * Balances volume of body fluid and mineral content * Responsible for ensuring that blood pressure remains constant long-term * Excreta additional acid produced by the body * Excreta water and electrolytes to match the water intake and endogenous production * Secret hormone drug erythropoietin (EPO) to make red blood cells * Activate vitamin D to maintain healthy bones “Diagnosis of kidney disease? * Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is an inherited disease in which numerous cysts filled with fluid form in the kidneys, causing them to widen.